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Legal Resources | United States Code, Title 42 |    1769d  

Childhood hunger research   

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(a) Research on causes and consequences of childhood hunger.

(1) In general. The Secretary shall conduct research on--

(A) the causes of childhood hunger and food insecurity;

(B) the characteristics of households with childhood hunger and food insecurity; and

(C) the consequences of childhood hunger and food insecurity.

(2) Authority. In carrying out research under paragraph (1), the Secretary may--

(A) enter into competitively awarded contracts or cooperative agreements; or

(B) provide grants to States or public or private agencies or organizations, as determined by the Secretary.

(3) Application. To be eligible to enter into a contract or cooperative agreement or receive a grant under this subsection, a State or public or private agency or organization shall submit to the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary shall require.

(4) Areas of inquiry. The Secretary shall design the research program to advance knowledge and understanding of information on the issues described in paragraph (1), such as--

(A) economic, health, social, cultural, demographic, and other factors that contribute to childhood hunger or food insecurity;

(B) the geographic distribution of childhood hunger and food insecurity;

(C) the extent to which--

(i) existing Federal assistance programs, including the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 USC 1 et seq.], reduce childhood hunger and food insecurity; and

(ii) childhood hunger and food insecurity persist due to--

(I) gaps in program coverage;

(II) the inability of potential participants to access programs; or

(III) the insufficiency of program benefits or services;

(D) the public health and medical costs of childhood hunger and food insecurity;

(E) an estimate of the degree to which the Census Bureau measure of food insecurity underestimates childhood hunger and food insecurity because the Census Bureau excludes certain households, such as homeless, or other factors;

(F) the effects of childhood hunger on child development, well-being, and educational attainment; and

(G) such other critical outcomes as are determined by the Secretary.

(5) Funding.

(A) In general. On October 1, 2012, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to the Secretary to carry out this subsection $ 10,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(B) Receipt and acceptance. The Secretary shall be entitled to receive, shall accept, and shall use to carry out this subsection the funds transferred under subparagraph (A), without further appropriation.

(b) Demonstration projects to end childhood hunger.

(1) Definitions. In this subsection:

(A) Child. The term "child" means a person under the age of 18.

(B) Supplemental nutrition assistance program. The term "supplemental nutrition assistance program" means the supplemental nutrition assistance program established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 USC 2011 et seq.).

(2) Purpose. Under such terms and conditions as are established by the Secretary, the Secretary shall carry out demonstration projects that test innovative strategies to end childhood hunger, including alternative models for service delivery and benefit levels that promote the reduction or elimination of childhood hunger and food insecurity.

(3) Projects. Demonstration projects carried out under this subsection may include projects that--

(A) enhance benefits provided under the supplemental nutrition assistance program for eligible households with children;

(B) enhance benefits or provide for innovative program delivery models in the school meals, afterschool snack, and child and adult care food programs under this Act and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 USC 1771 et seq.); and

(C) target Federal, State, or local assistance, including emergency housing or family preservation services, at households with children who are experiencing hunger or food insecurity, to the extent permitted by the legal authority establishing those assistance programs and services.

(4) Grants.

(A) Demonstration projects.

(i) In general. In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary may enter into competitively awarded contracts or cooperative agreements with, or provide grants to, public or private organizations or agencies (as determined by the Secretary), for use in accordance with demonstration projects that meet the purposes of this subsection.

(ii) Requirement. At least 1 demonstration project funded under this subsection shall be carried out on an Indian reservation in a rural area with a service population with a prevalence of diabetes that exceeds 15 percent, as determined by the Director of the Indian Health Service.

(B) Application. To be eligible to receive a contract, cooperative agreement, or grant under this subsection, an organization or agency shall submit to the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require.

(C) Selection criteria. Demonstration projects shall be selected based on publicly disseminated criteria that may include--

(i) an identification of a low-income target group that reflects individuals experiencing hunger or food insecurity;

(ii) a commitment to a demonstration project that allows for a rigorous outcome evaluation as described in paragraph (6);

(iii) a focus on innovative strategies to reduce the risk of childhood hunger or provide a significant improvement to the food security status of households with children; and

(iv) such other criteria as are determined by the Secretary.

(5) Consultation. In determining the range of projects and defining selection criteria under this subsection, the Secretary shall consult with--

(A) the Secretary of Health and Human Services;

(B) the Secretary of Labor; and

(C) the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

(6) Evaluation and reporting.

(A) Independent evaluation. The Secretary shall provide for an independent evaluation of each demonstration project carried out under this subsection that--

(i) measures the impact of each demonstration project on appropriate participation, food security, nutrition, and associated behavioral outcomes among participating households; and

(ii) uses rigorous experimental designs and methodologies, particularly random assignment or other methods that are capable of producing scientifically valid information regarding which activities are effective in reducing the prevalence or preventing the incidence of food insecurity and hunger in the community, especially among children.

(B) Reporting. Not later than December 31, 2013 and each December 31 thereafter until the date on which the last evaluation under subparagraph (A) is completed, the Secretary shall--

(i) submit to the Committee on Agriculture and the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that includes a description of--

(I) the status of each demonstration project; and

(II) the results of any evaluations of the demonstration projects completed during the previous fiscal year; and

(ii) ensure that the evaluation results are shared broadly to inform policy makers, service providers, other partners, and the public in order to promote the wide use of successful strategies.

(7) Funding.

(A) In general. On October 1, 2012, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to the Secretary to carry out this subsection $ 40,000,000, to remain available until September 30, 2017.

(B) Receipt and acceptance. The Secretary shall be entitled to receive, shall accept, and shall use to carry out this subsection the funds transferred under subparagraph (A), without further appropriation.

(C) Use of funds.

(i) In general. Funds made available under subparagraph (A) may be used to carry out this subsection, including to pay Federal costs associated with developing, soliciting, awarding, monitoring, evaluating, and disseminating the results of each demonstration project under this subsection.

(ii) Indian reservations. Of amounts made available under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall use a portion of the amounts to carry out research relating to hunger, obesity and type 2 diabetes on Indian reservations, including research to determine the manner in which Federal nutrition programs can help to overcome those problems.

(iii) Report. Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section [enacted Dec. 13, 2010], the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that--

(I) describes the manner in which Federal nutrition programs can help to overcome child hunger nutrition problems on Indian reservations; and

(II) contains proposed administrative and legislative recommendations to strengthen and streamline all relevant Department of Agriculture nutrition programs to reduce childhood hunger, obesity, and type 2 diabetes on Indian reservations.

(D) Limitations.

(i) Duration. No project may be funded under this subsection for more than 5 years.

(ii) Project requirements. No project that makes use of, alters, or coordinates with the supplemental nutrition assistance program may be funded under this subsection unless the project is fully consistent with the project requirements described in section 17(b)(1)(B) of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 USC 2026(b)(1)(B)).

(iii) Hunger-free communities. No project may be funded under this subsection that receives funding under section 4405 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (7 USC 7517).

(iv) Other benefits. Funds made available under this subsection may not be used for any project in a manner that is inconsistent with--

(I) this Act [42 USC 1751 et seq.];

(II) the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 USC 1771 et seq.);

(III) the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 USC 2011 et seq.); or

(IV) the Emergency Food Assistance Act of 1983 (7 USC 7501 et seq.).

(Aug. 22, 1996, P.L. 104-193)