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Legal Resources | Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49 |    382.305, 382.305  

Random testing.   

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(a) Every employer shall comply with the requirements of this section. Every driver shall submit to random alcohol and controlled substance testing as required in this section.

(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) through (e) of this section, the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing shall be 25 percent of the average number of driver positions.

(2) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) through (h) of this section, the minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing shall be 50 percent of the average number of driver positions.

(c) The FHWA Administrator's decision to increase or decrease the minimum annual percentage rate for alcohol testing is based on the reported violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for this determination is drawn from the alcohol management information system reports required by Sec. 382.403 of this part. In order to ensure reliability of the data, the FHWA Administrator considers the quality and completeness of the reported data, may obtain additional information or reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation rate. Each year, the FHWA Administrator will publish in the Federal Register the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing of drivers. The new minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing will be applicable starting January 1 of the calendar year following publication.

(d)(1) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing is 25 percent or more, the FHWA Administrator may lower this rate to 10 percent of all driver positions if the FHWA Administrator determines that the data received under the reporting requirements of Sec. 382.403 for two consecutive calendar years indicate that the violation rate is less than 0.5 percent.

(2) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing is 50 percent, the FHWA Administrator may lower this rate to 25 percent of all driver positions if the FHWA Administrator determines that the data received under the reporting requirements of Sec. 382.403 for two consecutive calendar years indicate that the violation rate is less than 1.0 percent but equal to or greater than 0.5 percent.

(e)(1) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing is 10 percent, and the data received under the reporting requirements of Sec. 382.403 for that calendar year indicate that the violation rate is equal to or greater than 0.5 percent, but less than 1.0 percent, the FHWA Administrator will increase the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing to 25 percent for all driver positions.

(2) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing is 25 percent or less, and the data received under the reporting requirements of Sec. 382.403 for that calendar year indicate that the violation rate is equal to or greater than 1.0 percent, the FHWA Administrator will increase the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing to 50 percent for all driver positions.

(f) The FHWA Administrator's decision to increase or decrease the minimum annual percentage rate for controlled substances testing is based on the reported positive rate for the entire industry. All information used for this determination is drawn from the controlled substances management information system reports required by Sec. 382.403 of this part. In order to ensure reliability of the data, the FHWA Administrator considers the quality and completeness of the reported data, may obtain additional information or reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry positive rate. Each year, the FHWA Administrator will publish in the Federal Register the minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing of drivers. The new minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing will be applicable starting January 1 of the calendar year following publication.

(g) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing is 50 percent, the FHWA Administrator may lower this rate to 25 percent of all driver positions if the FHWA Administrator determines that the data received under the reporting requirements of Sec. 382.403 for two consecutive calendar years indicate that the positive rate is less than 1.0 percent. However, after the initial two years of random testing by large employers and the initial first year of testing by small employers under this section, the FHWA Administrator may lower the rate the following calendar year, if the combined positive testing rate is less than 1.0 percent, and if it would be in the interest of safety.

(h) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing is 25 percent, and the data received under the reporting requirements of Sec. 382.403 for any calendar year indicate that the reported positive rate is equal to or greater than 1.0 percent, the FHWA Administrator will increase the minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing to 50 percent of all driver positions.

(i) The selection of drivers for random alcohol and controlled substances testing shall be made by a scientifically valid method, such as a random number table or a computer-based random number generator that is matched with drivers' Social Security numbers, payroll identification numbers, or other comparable identifying numbers. Under the selection process used, each driver shall have an equal chance of being tested each time selections are made.

(j) The employer shall randomly select a sufficient number of drivers for testing during each calendar year to equal an annual rate not less than the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol and controlled substances testing determined by the FHWA Administrator. If the employer conducts random testing for alcohol and/or controlled substances through a consortium, the number of drivers to be tested may be calculated for each individual employer or may be based on the total number of drivers covered by the consortium who are subject to random alcohol and/or controlled substances testing at the same minimum annual percentage rate under this part or any DOT alcohol or controlled substances random testing rule.

(k) Each employer shall ensure that random alcohol and controlled substances tests conducted under this part are unannounced and that the dates for administering random alcohol and controlled substances tests are spread reasonably throughout the calendar year.

(l) Each employer shall require that each driver who is notified of selection for random alcohol and/or controlled substances testing proceeds to the test site immediately; provided, however, that if the driver is performing a safety-sensitive function, other than driving a commercial motor vehicle, at the time of notification, the employer shall instead ensure that the driver ceases to perform the safety- sensitive function and proceeds to the testing site as soon as possible.

(m) A driver shall only be tested for alcohol while the driver is performing safety-sensitive functions, just before the driver is to perform safety-sensitive functions, or just after the driver has ceased performing such functions.

(n) If a given driver is subject to random alcohol or controlled substances testing under the random alcohol or controlled substances testing rules of more than one DOT agency for the same employer, the driver shall be subject to random alcohol and/or controlled substances testing at the annual percentage rate established for the calendar year by the DOT agency regulating more than 50 percent of the driver's function.

(o) If an employer is required to conduct random alcohol or controlled substances testing under the alcohol or controlled substances testing rules of more than one DOT agency, the employer may--

(1) Establish separate pools for random selection, with each pool containing the DOT-covered employees who are subject to testing at the same required minimum annual percentage rate; or

(2) Randomly select such employees for testing at the highest minimum annual percentage rate established for the calendar year by any DOT agency to which the employer is subject.