Chapter 6.5. Motor Carrier Safety * Article 8. General Equipment Requirements Brakes--All Vehicles.
(a) Reciprocating Compressor Discharge Line--Every part of the first 24-inch length of a reciprocating air compressor discharge line, measured from the compressor discharge port, shall be designed to withstand at least 450 degrees Fahrenheit for continuous service and, if flexible hose, shall be reinforced by at least one layer of wire braid. The entire air discharge line and its couplings shall show no leakage under a pressure of 200 pounds per square inch for 5 minutes. This provision does not apply to school buses manufactured prior to January 1, 1968, or to vehicles manufactured on and after March 1, 1975, in compliance with FMVSS 121 (49 CFR 571.121).
(b) Check Valves--Motor vehicles equipped with a check valve in compliance with Vehicle Code Sections 26507 and 26522 shall have a readily accessible means for testing proper operation of the valve, and tools needed for the test shall be carried in the vehicle. The means shall not consist of loosening any connection between the source of compressed air or vacuum and the check valve. This provision does not apply to Type 1 school buses manufactured prior to January 2, 1968.
(1) In air brake systems, the means shall be a manually operated drain cock or other device between the check valve and the compressor.
(2) In vacuum systems, the means may be the stopping of the engine.
(c) Air Reservoirs--Property-carrying vehicles first sold and registered after January 1, 1967, school buses, farm labor vehicles, and Type 1 buses, equipped with air or vacuum brakes, shall have a reserve capacity sufficient to ensure a full service brake application with the engine stopped without depleting the air pressure or vacuum below 70 percent of that indicated by a gauge immediately before the brake application. Such vehicles manufactured on and after March 1, 1975, and equipped with air brakes shall have a reserve capacity sufficient to ensure a full brake application with the engine stopped without depleting the air pressure below 85 percent of that indicated by a gauge immediately before the application.
(1) Air Reservoir Specifications--Air brake reservoirs installed as original equipment on vehicles manufactured in compliance with FMVSS 121 (49 CFR 571.121) are not required to be marked. Replacement air brake reservoirs shall met SAE J10 in the 1965 or later edition of the SAE Handbook and be marked with the manufacturer's initials followed by SAE J10 150 psi Rated Working Pressure and the date of manufacture. Auxiliary air tanks shall meet the requirements of Section 1252 of this title.
(2) Air Reservoir Drains--Air reservoirs used in brake systems shall have means other than a plug for draining water and contaminants from the lowest portion of the reservoir. Multicompartment air brake reservoirs shall provide such means for draining each compartment.
(d) Air Flow Restriction--Any valve or other mechanism of an air brake system that restricts the free flow of compressed air between the brake application control and the brake actuators at application pressures above 10 pounds per square inch under normal operating conditions shall comply with the brake equipment requirements in Article 12, Chapter 4, of this title, beginning with Section 1061, except as provided in Vehicle Code Section 26311(b) governing reduced braking effort on front wheels.
(e) Detachable Connections--Detachable air or vacuum connections shall be constructed, installed, and maintained to ensure against accidental disconnection. When connections at the end of flexible air lines are left detached, they shall be adequately protected against the entrance of dirt.
(f) Brake Tubing and Hose Requirements--Tubing, pipe, and hose used in air, vacuum, or hydraulic brake systems shall be:
(1) designed and constructed in a manner that ensures proper, adequate, and continued functioning,
(2) sufficiently long and flexible to accommodate without damage all normal motions of the parts to which it is attached,
(3) suitably secured against chafing, kinking, or other mechanical damage,
(4) installed in a manner that prevents contact with the vehicle's exhaust system or other source of high temperature, and
(5) installed in a manner that ensures proper continued functioning and that is free of leaks, constrictions, or other defects.
(A) Tubing or pipe shall be supported to minimize fatigue.
(B) Metal-to-metal contact shall be avoided by the use of soft nonmetallic cushions at points of support.
(C) Tubing or pipe shall be protected against road hazards either by a protected location or adequate shielding at exposed areas.
(D) Protective loom, where used, shall be both water and acid resistant.
(E) Vacuum brake systems shall be connected to the engine manifold with fittings at least 3/8 inch in inside diameter.
(g) Brake Tubing and Hose Connections--Connections for air, vacuum or hydraulic brake systems shall:
(1) be adequate in material and construction to ensure proper continued functioning,
(2) be designed, constructed, and installed to ensure an attachment free of leaks, constrictions, or other defects when properly connected, and
(3) use fittings that meet SAE J512 OCT 80, Automotive Tube Fittings, or SAE J246 MAR 81, Spherical and Flanged Sleeve (Compression) Tube Fittings, for tubing splices made on a vehicle on or after July 1, 1992.
(h) Brake Tubing--Metallic tubing shall only be used where relative movement in the line does not occur.
(1) On vehicles manufactured after July 1, 1992, and on any replacements made to the brake line on any vehicle after this date, nonmetallic (plastic) brake tubing shall only be used where relative movement does not occur or through an articulation point provided movement is less than 4.5 degrees in a vertical plane and 7.4 degrees in a transverse horizontal plane. Plastic tubing shall not touch or be attached to leaf, coil, or air suspension springs.
(2) Brake Hose and Coiled Nonmetallic Tubing--Brake hose and coiled nonmetallic brake tubing is for use where substantial relative movement in the line occurs or the line is exposed to potential tension or impact such as between the frame and axle in a conventional suspension system. Only coiled nonmetallic brake tubing or brake hose may be used for connections between towed and towing vehicles or between the frame of a towed vehicle and the sliding subframe of an adjustable axle of that vehicle. If coiled nonmetallic brake tubing is used in these locations it shall be encased in a spring guard or similar device which resists kinking of the tubing at the fittings to which it is attached.
(i) Air Brake Tubing Standards--Air brake tubing that is original equipment on a vehicle at time of manufacture is not required by FMVSS to meet any requirement but is subject to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recall if it become a safety defect. Replacement brake tubing installed on or after July 1, 1992, shall meet the following Society of Automotive Engineers Standards:
(1) Metallic Tubing--Metallic tubing shall be copper tubing or galvanized steel pipe meeting SAE J1149, Metallic Air Brake System Tubing and Pipe. Copper tubing shall be permanently and legibly marked Air Brake.
(2) Nonmetallic Tubing--Nonmetallic tubing shall meet SAE J844, Nonmetallic Air Brake System Tubing, Type B (reinforced). Such tubing shall be identified in contrasting color with the markings Airbrake, SAE J844 Type B, the nominal outside diameter of the tubing in inches, and the tubing manufacturer's name or symbol.
(j) Brake Hose Standards--Air, hydraulic, and vacuum brake hoses installed on and after September 1, 1974, shall comply with FMVSS 106, Brake Hoses (49 CFR 571.106), except S12 and S13.
(1) Original Equipment Components--Components that are original equipment on a vehicle at time of manufacture are not required by FMVSS to be identified in any manner but are subject to NHTSA recall for noncompliance with the performance requirements of the standards.
(2) Brake Hose--Air, hydraulic, and vacuum brake hose manufactured on or after September 1, 1974, shall be marked in letters at least 1/8 inch high with DOT, the hose manufacturer's designation, the month and year of manufacture, and the nominal inside diameter of the hose. FMVSS 106 does not require these markings to be visible on a completed brake hose assembly.
(3) Replacement Air Brake Hose Assemblies--Replacement air brake hose assemblies manufactured on or after September 1, 1974, with end fittings attached to the hose by crimping or swaging shall have at least one end fitting etched, stamped, or embossed with a designation at least 1/16 inch high that identifies the hose assembly manufacturer.
(4) Air Brake Hose Fittings--Air brake hose fittings manufactured on or after September 1, 1974, that are not crimped or swaged shall have at least one component etched, stamped, or embossed in block capital letters, numerals, or symbols at least 1/16 inch high with DOT, a designation that identifies the manufacturer of that component of the fittings, A for nonreusable fittings at AI or AII for reusable fittings, and the nominal inside diameter in inches or millimeters (or outside diameter of plastic tubing) to which the fitting is properly attached.
(5) Hydraulic Brake Hose Assemblies--Hydraulic brake hose assemblies manufactured on and after September 1, 1974, shall have at least one end fitting etched, stamped, or embossed with a designation at least 1/16 inch high that identifies the manufacturer of the assembly. Each hose shall have at least two clearly identifiable stripes at least 1/16 inch wide placed on opposite sides of the hose parallel to its longitudinal axis, except where the end fittings prevent its installation in a twisted orientation on either side of the vehicle.
(6) Vacuum Brake Hose Assemblies--Vacuum brake hose assemblies manufactured on or after September 1, 1974, with end fittings that are attached to the hose by crimping or swaging, or to plastic tubing by heat shrinking or interference fit, shall have at least one end fitting etched, stamped, or embossed with a designation at least 1/16 inch high that identifies the manufacturer of the assembly.
(7) Manufacturer's Option--At the manufacturer's option, brake hose assemblies may instead be marked by a band around the assembly with the letters DOT and with a designation that identifies the hose assembly manufacturer, in letters, numerals, or symbols at least 1/16 inch high.
(k) Air Leakage Rates--Air leakage with the engine stopped and the air reservoir pressure at governor cutout as specified in Section 1061(b) of this title shall not exceed the following rates.
(1) With service brake released and air or spring parking brakes applied:
2 pounds per square inch per minute for single vehicles,
3 pounds per square inch per minute for combinations of two vehicles, and
5 pounds per square inch per minute for combinations of three or more vehicles.
(2) With service brakes applied and air or spring parking brakes released:
3 pounds per square inch per minute for single vehicles,
4 pounds per square inch per minute for combinations of two vehicles, and
6 pounds per square inch per minute for combinations of three or more vehicles.
(3) No leakage shall occur in tubing or hose even if the overall leakage is less than the specified limit.
(l) Hydraulic Brakes--The pressure of hydraulic brakes shall not be higher than the manufacturer's rated capacity of the hose assemblies.
Vehicle Code 26502
Vehicle Code 31401
Vehicle Code 34501
Vehicle Code 34501.5
Vehicle Code 34508
Vehicle Code 26502
Vehicle Code 31401
Vehicle Code 34501
Vehicle Code 34501.5
Vehicle Code 34508
(Amended by Register 95, No. 36.)